Types and scopes of detailed research < Back

Subdivision of Detailed Analysis

Chemical and microbiological tests on immovable cultural property are carried out in the subdivision of laboratory of detailed analysis. Before starting conservation - restoration works it is necessary to determine the composition of the used plaster, masonry, coarseness of filler, ratio of constituents, and morphology. Materials, complying with the old technology or does not objecting it must be necessarily used during restoration of cultural heritage.

Provided analysis:

1. Chemical and Texture Analysis of Plaster and Masonry.

The analysis of masonry composite materials (chemical and complete texture analyses) must be provided, organic binder must be determined, as used restorative materials must be of the same origin.

Texture composition it is filler particles distribution by size, expressed by mass percentage of spills, within a specified number of sieves.

Chemical plaster and masonry analysis is performed in order to determine qualitative composition of the plaster and masonry. Used original materials and mortar preparation technology are pursued to assess during chemical composition analysis. The mortars in comparative analysis are analyzed according to the following three indicators, related to the composition of the mortar:

1) carbonized lime;

2) sand (filler);

3) hydraulic percentage quantities of impurities by weight.

Set parameters (oxides in mortar), provided ratio of binder and filler, calculated hydraulic and magnesia modules are the results of chemical analysis.

Texture and quantitative chemical composition is determined during the analysis, the visual description and recommendations for conservation - restoration works are provided there also.

2. Polychrome analysis: chemical and stratigraphic analysis of paint layers

It is mandatory to carry out the stratigraphic analysis of paint layers, to determine the original paint layers, binders, pigments, technique of performing and technological recommendations for wall painting arrangement works according to these analyses should be made.

Before the wall paintings and frescoes conservation - restoration works, it is necessary to identify the exact composition of used paintings (composition of used paints; pigments and binders) in order suitable materials, corresponding the old technology or not react with it to be used during the restoration. Therefore, polychrome painting (chemical paint layers) analyses are performed and the sample pigments, binder, and painting technology are determined there.

Pigments and binding agents are in each layer of the paint. Binder material is important for new paint eligibility, as the same binder or related (not reacting, to protect adequately) material must be used.

Before restoring the fresco (or murals), it is important to determine not only the paint, but the number of layers on fresco or murals. The exact number of layers, covering the sample of paint is determined after the analysis of stratigraphic layers of paint. The original paint layers, their colors, etc. are determined according to stratigraphy (the number of layers of paint).

Substance analyses of immovable metal objects of cultural heritage are provided at the laboratory. It is necessary to determine metal structure (elements) before the restoration of the monument and then the best suited for metal preservation and restoration materials can be used.

Pigments, binder, order of painting layers and quantity are determined during polychrome (chemical and stratigraphic) analyses. The conclusions and recommendations for painting conservation – restoration works are provided.

3. Chemical corrosion - the analysis of water-soluble salts

Chemical corrosion mostly and fiercely depletes the structures. Water soluble salts crystallize on the surfaces of building structures (walls, etc.), thereby degrading inner and outer layers of materials. It is necessary to determine the amount and kind of water-soluble salts in the object and immediately remove them.

The qualitative analysis of water-soluble salts is carried out during the analysis. The recommendations for desalination are provided.

4. Biological corrosion - microbiological tests

It is mandatory to perform analysis of biological corrosion (biological pest). Biological pests, such as: lichens, algae, bacteria, and entomological pests are identified during the analysis. The recommendations for antiseptics are provided.